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  • Purse or "Sweet Bag"

    Purse or "Sweet Bag"

    1600-1625; England; Anonymous gift; Silk, silver and silver gilt metallic threads, and pearls on linen canvas

    Acc. Num: 1971-1465

  • Drawstring Bag

    Drawstring Bag

    1600-1625; England; Silk, metallic threads, linen ground, wood

    Acc. Num: 1956-554

  • Rectangular Canvaswork Purse

    Rectangular Canvaswork Purse

    1600-1625; England; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Silk and metallic needlework on linen canvas

    This bag has worked eyelets for a drawstring, which is missing; the long braided handle is a later replacement.

    Acc. Num: 1991-489

  • Man's Glove with Pink Cuff

    Man's Glove with Pink Cuff

    1610-1620; England; Leather, silk, silver gilt metallic threads, purl, and plate

    Gloves were important fashionable and symbolic accessories for men and women. Gloves were often given as gifts and as mementos at funerals. Bishops sometimes wore gloves during Roman Catholic services. This glove with a pink cuff has a history of being a man's wedding glove.

    Acc. Num: 1968-105

  • Gold Knitted Glove

    Gold Knitted Glove

    1610-1620; England; Knitted silk, silver and gold metallic threads, linen, unknown stiffening

    Acc. Num: 1974-1101

  • "La Galerie du Palais"

    "La Galerie du Palais"

    ca. 1640; France; Abraham Bosse (ca. 1602-1676)

    Acc. Num: 1967-331

  • White Linen Collar or "Falling Band"

    White Linen Collar or "Falling Band"

    1640-1645; England; Linen, linen bobbin lace

    The term "falling band" describes the transition away from heavily starched standing ruffs, or bands, that men and women wore around their necks before about 1640. After that date, people wore softer collars that appeared to have "fallen" to lie flat against the shoulders, such as this example. A collar made as a separate accessory was easily removed for laundering. Pristine white linen accessories indicated status and gentility, because the wearer was wealthy enough to change linens as they got soiled. The collar comes with matching removable cuffs.

    Acc. Num: 1956-144

  • Garters


    1649; Mediterranean area, probably Algeria for export; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Woven silk

    Garters consisted of long narrow ribbons or tapes tied tightly over the stocking tops. This is one of several surviving pairs of seventeenth-century garters with the word "Jerusalem" woven in as part of the design. Garters such as these reached England and America. Judge Samuel Sewall of Boston received a pair as a gift in 1688. He was told the garters had been woven in Algeria by a Jewish person.

    Acc. Num: 1991-491, 1-2

  • Stocking or Long Purse

    Stocking or Long Purse

    1650-1720; England; Anonymous gift; Silk sprang embroidered with silk and silver metallic threads

    This purse is made in an ancient technique called sprang, in which threads are stretched on a frame and manipulated with the fingers to interlink or twine them, working from the ends toward the middle, and often using a stick to control the twists and keep them from unraveling. The resulting fabric has natural elasticity, similar to knitted products, although the techniques are very different.

    Acc. Num: 1971-1421

  • Green Woven Purse with Ribbon Fringe

    Green Woven Purse with Ribbon Fringe

    1650-1680; England or Europe, possibly Italy; Anonymous gift; Silver wire, silks

    Small decorative purses were popular accessories for presenting gifts of money and for holding sweet-smelling herbs and perfumed substances. This purse has eyelets or holes near the top for drawstring closures.

    Acc. Num: 1971-1413

  • Woman's Mule or Slipper

    Woman's Mule or Slipper

    ca. 1660; England; Silk brocaded with silver metallic threads, silver gilt lace trim, wood, leather, silk lining

    Acc. Num: 1947-213

  • Pocket Watch

    Pocket Watch

    ca. 1665; London, England; Gift of Edward P. Hamilton; Silver, glass, enamel, gold, steel; Samuel Betts (d. ca. 1673)

    This watch not only tells the time but also the date. It has a calendar ring with numbers 1 through 31 around the outside of the dial. The calendar ring rotates counter-clockwise.

    Acc. Num: 1954-204

  • Workbag


    1675; England; Wool embroidery on linen warp/ cotton weft textile

    Women used workbags to carry their knitting, sewing, and knotting supplies in the home or when they went out visiting. Crewel wool embroidery using one color was fashionable from about 1650 to 1700. Unlike multicolor embroidered textiles, single-colored designs were outlined and filled in with veining or dots instead of shading. Although this example is English, Americans embroidered in this style: Samuel Sewall of Boston ordered fustian (a cotton and linen textile similar to this workbag) and green wool for an embroidery project for his daughters in 1687.

    Acc. Num: 2009-12

  • Les Details de l'Habillement du Courtisan

    Les Details de l'Habillement du Courtisan

    1678; France; Hand-colored line engraving on paper; Sebastien Le Clerc

    A man and woman in stylish seventeenth-century dress stand in a millinery shop stocked with textiles, lace, and other accessories. The man wears a newly fashionable suit with a long, flared coat that effectively hides the waistcoat and breeches he wears underneath. The woman's torso is shaped as an elongated cone, and her skirt is draped back to reveal a petticoat. This style of wearing the skirt open to show a decorative petticoat persisted for more than a century.

    Acc. Num: 1961-72

  • Walking Stick

    Walking Stick

    1680-1720; England; Gift of Dr. Thomas Teakle Upshur IV and Mr. Robert Irving Upshur; Silver, malacca (cane similar to bamboo), iron

    Acc. Num: 2008-157

    adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,walking stick,cane,1675-1710,1710-1740,
  • "Constantinople" Pocketbook

    "Constantinople" Pocketbook

    1696; Constantinople or Mediterranean Area; Leather, silver wire, silk, linen

    A relatively large number of similarly embroidered pocketbooks were inscribed with the city names "Constantinople" in Turkey and "Tetuan" in northern Morocco. The surviving examples date from the late seventeenth century to the third quarter of the 18th century. Perhaps the pocketbooks were souvenirs of travels, but were they actually embroidered in the locations written on them? The English diarist Samuel Pepys had a similar pocketbook embroidered with his name, "Saml Pepys Esq" and "Constantinople Anno 1687." Yet Pepys was not in Constantinople that year, and we assume the wallet may have been a gift.

    Acc. Num: 1960-347

  • Man's Gloves

    Man's Gloves

    1700-1720; England; Leather embroidered with silver gilt and silk

    Acc. Num: 1947-212, 1-2

  • Man's Undress Cap

    Man's Undress Cap

    ca. 1700; Europe; Gift of Mrs. Cora Ginsburg; Ribbed silk embroidered with silk and silver metallic threads

    Acc. Num: 1991-496

  • Woman's or Man's Pocketbook

    Woman's or Man's Pocketbook

    1700-1750; France; Silk satin embroidered with silk, silver, and silver gilt

    Richly embellished bags were used for a variety of purposes. Some were used to present gifts of money, not unlike paper gift bags or cards today. Some held a tiny Bible or prayer book. Yet others held sweet-scented powders to scent clothing or one's person. For this reason, small pocketbooks were sometimes called "sweet bags."

    Acc. Num: 1952-161

  • Cream-color Kerchief

    Cream-color Kerchief

    1700s; Europe; Gift of the Honorable Irwin Untermyer; Silk and metallic thread needlework on silk

    Many women wore embroidered kerchiefs around their necks and shoulders to fill in the low necklines of their gowns.

    Acc. Num: 1954-2

  • Peach Kerchief

    Peach Kerchief

    probably 1700s; Possibly India for export; Gift of the Honorable Irwin Untermyer; Some colorful silk embroidered kerchiefs were associated with Jewish weddings in Europe, worn by brides as a symbol of modesty and as a festive accessory. The peach kerchief may originally have been worn by a Jewish bride.

    Acc. Num: 1954-3

  • Shield-Shaped Purse

    Shield-Shaped Purse

    1700-1740; Probably England; Anonymous gift; Silk, silver metallic threads, steel

    Acc. Num: 1971-1464

  • Spectacles or "Pince-Nez" Glasses with Tinted Lenses

    Spectacles or "Pince-Nez" Glasses with Tinted Lenses

    1700-1750; Europe; Anonymous gift; Glass, copper, silver metallic thread

    Acc. Num: 1971-145, A

  • Spectacles with Case

    Spectacles with Case

    case ca. 1787; spectacles probably 1700s; England; Spectacles: brass, glass (possibly replaced); case: steel, wool, leather, silk thread; engraved "Solomon Freeman, June 25th 1787"

    Acc. Num: 1967-715

  • Knitted White Cap

    Knitted White Cap

    1700-1830; Europe; Anonymous gift; Linen, silk lining

    Acc. Num: 1971-1674

    clothing,adult,genderm,evydyacc,accessory,cap,all dates ,1675-1710,1815-1840,
  • Green Embroidered Cap

    Green Embroidered Cap

    1700-1730; Europe, probably Italy; Anonymous gift; Silk on silk

    Acc. Num: 1971-1378

  • Silk and Metallic Embroidered Purse

    Silk and Metallic Embroidered Purse

    ca. 1700; Europe, possibly Italy; Anonymous gift; Silk and metallic threads on silk, silk ribbon trim

    Acc. Num: 1971-1412

  • Fan


    ca. 1700; Europe; Painted paper, ivory, metal inlay

    Ancient Roman gods and a goddess on this fan probably depict a scene from Virgil's Aeneid, written in 29-19 B.C. The female god Juno tried to destroy Aeneid by persuading the wind god Aeolus to blow and create a storm. Neptune, the god of the sea, intervened to save Aeneid. The fan was probably owned by a well-educated woman who was familiar with the epic Roman story.

    Acc. Num: 1986-47

  • Woman's White Mitts

    Woman's White Mitts

    ca. 1700; England; Knitted cotton

    Gloves without fingers, called mitts, allowed women to do needlework or other hand crafts while still keeping their arms covered.

    Acc. Num: 1991-555

  • Green and Pink Ribbons

    Green and Pink Ribbons

    1700s or 1800s; England or Europe; Anonymous gift; Silk

    Acc. Num: 1971-1629, 46 and 1953-964, 1

    accessory,adult,genderf,trimmings,all dates,post-1840,
  • Infant's Shirt (top)

    Infant's Shirt (top)

    1700-1750; Britain; Anonymous gift; Linen decorated with linen Hollie point needlework and bobbin lace

    Baby clothes were usually sewn with minute seams and fine stitches. All raw edges in this example have been turned under and neatly finished to prevent chafing and to keep seams from raveling during laundering. Hollie point was a needlework technique that used buttonhole stitches with an extra twist to create lace. This design features potted flowers. (Seen with acc. num 1991-1180)

    Acc. Num: G1971-1570

  • Undress Cap

    Undress Cap

    Linen; Britain or America, eighteenth century; This plain cap is typical of the style worn by most men while laboring or sleeping. The durable linen and closely stitched seams survived years of wear and laundering. The cap is unlined and cut in one piece with a single seam up on side and continuing over the curved crown. The bottom rolls up to form a brim.

    Acc. Num: 1999-216

  • Lace Edging

    Lace Edging

    18th century; Europe; Anonymous gift; Linen bobbin lace

    Acc. Num: G1971-1596, 2b

  • Apron (missing waistband), made by or for Jane Riggs

    Apron (missing waistband), made by or for Jane Riggs

    1710; England; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Cotton embroidered with linen

    This delicate apron has two small circles in which the owner's name or initials and the year are worked in drawn work. They read "Iane Riggs" and "IR 1710." At this period, the letters I and J were considered the same, so Jane Riggs's name began with a capital I, instead of a J. Can you find the inscriptions? The apron would have been pleated or gathered to a narrow tape waistband. Because apron ties were typically very narrow, the term "apron strings" was used to refer to them.

    Acc. Num: 1991-524

  • Stomacher with Crossed Cords (front and back)

    Stomacher with Crossed Cords (front and back)

    1720-1740; Britain; Gift of Mrs. Cora Ginsburg; Silk embroidered with silk and metallic threads, lined with block-printed cotton

    Women wore decorative stomachers to fill in the fronts of their open bodices. The tabs at the sides were pinned to the stays or gown to hold the stomacher in position. The rare early printed cotton on the reverse of this stomacher survived only because it was used to line the silk embroidered stomacher that was worn infrequently and saved for its beauty.

    Acc. Num: G1991-487

  • Stomacher (front and back)

    Stomacher (front and back)

    1720-1740; Britain; Silk embroidered with silk and metallic threads, lined with block-printed cotton

    Women wore decorative stomachers to fill in the fronts of their open bodices. The tabs at the sides were pinned to the stays or gown to hold the stomacher in position. This stomacher was backed with rare early printed cotton. Seldom did the earliest printed cottons survive years of laundering and daily wear. The print on the reverse of this stomacher endured only because it was used to line the silk embroidered piece that was worn infrequently and saved for its beauty.

    Acc. Num: 1993-45

  • Garter


    1725; England; Tablet woven silk

    Stocking garters consisted of ribbons or other woven tapes that were tied tightly around the leg. Rubber elastic was not yet available. This garter has an inscription that reads, "Wove Without Sight." Because the other garter from the set is missing, the rest of the saying or verse cannot be determined.

    Acc. Num: 1956-17

  • "Tetuan" Pocketbook, shown with paper backing visible

    "Tetuan" Pocketbook, shown with paper backing visible

    1727; Tetuan, Northern Morocco, or Mediterranean Area; Leather, silver metallic threads, paper

    The "Tetuan" pocketbook is interlined with old English-language printed papers, suggesting that it was made in an English-speaking area or under the direction of a British merchant.

    Acc. Num: 1936-587

  • Woman's Shoes

    Woman's Shoes

    1730-1750; England; Silk brocaded with silver gilt, lined with linen and silk, leather soles, wooden heels

    Acc. Num: 1952-356, 1-2

  • Apron


    1730-1740; England; Anonymous gift; Silk embroidered with metallic threads

    Some aprons were fashionable, not functional. Short silk aprons with elaborate silk and metallic needlework were especially stylish in the 1730s and early 1740s. This professionally embroidered apron has shiny gilt embroidery and sequins, sometimes called "paillettes."

    Acc. Num: 1971-1539

    metallic,clothing ,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,apron,1710-1740 ,
  • Shield-Shaped Purse, front and back

    Shield-Shaped Purse, front and back

    1730-1745; France or Germany; Silk embroidered with silk and silver-gilt threads

    Small purses embroidered with silk and metal threads were often used as elaborate packaging for gifts of money.

    Acc. Num: 1985-224

  • White Embroidered Cap

    White Embroidered Cap

    1730-1760; England or France; Anonymous gift; Linen on linen, linen bobbin lace, linen lining

    Acc. Num: 1971-1375

  • Red Embroidered Cap

    Red Embroidered Cap

    1730-1750; Europe, probably Italy; Anonymous gift; Silk and metallic threads on silk, silver lace, silk-wrapped vellum topknot, linen lining, unknown stiffening (possibly paper)

    Acc. Num: 1971-1382

  • Lace Edging

    Lace Edging

    1730-1760; Europe; Anonymous gift; Linen bobbin lace

    Acc. Num: 1971-1596, 7E

  • Apron


    1730-1740; England; Anonymous gift; Silk embroidered with silk and silver metallic threads, replaced waistband and ribbon

    Elegant silk and silver embroidery edges the apron and outlines what were originally intended as two pocket openings near the waist. The openings were never cut open for pockets, however. The apron would originally have been gathered or pleated to a narrow waistband made from a ribbon or tape. The waistband has been replaced by a later casing. Aprons such as this were professionally embroidered.

    Acc. Num: 1971-1540

  • Fan


    ca. 1730; Europe, probably France or Italy; Paper, paint, tortoise shell, mother of pearl, gilding

    The classical scene painted on this fan suggests that its owner was well-educated and familiar with mythological stories. The story may be that of Theseus.

    Acc. Num: 1953-228

  • Boy's Waistcoat

    Boy's Waistcoat

    1730-1740, altered later in eighteenth century; Britain; Anonymous gift; Cotton embroidered with linen, linen-cotton back, lining missing

    This child's white embroidered waistcoat was made from a larger one sized to fit a man. The boy's waistcoat was cut down around the edges, interrupting the embroidery design without regard for its original contours. The pocket flaps were repositioned directly on top of the densest portion of needlework. In unaltered examples, flaps were usually stitched within a blank area framed by the embroidery design.

    Acc. Num: G1971-1577

  • The Brewster Family of Wrentham Hall, Suffolk; Thomas Bardwell

    The Brewster Family of Wrentham Hall, Suffolk; Thomas Bardwell

    1736; England; Gift of Mr. and Mrs. David Stockwell; Oil on canvas

    The posture, clothing, and accessories of the members of this gentry family signal high status, a leisurely lifestyle, and awareness of the latest fashions. The 24-year-old heir, Philip, sits at far left wearing a full powdered wig that makes him appear older than his actual age. His suit coat has deep cuffs and full skirts. His pose seems calculated to display a waistcoat that is embellished with embroidery or brocading. The women and girls, including the widow in black and white clothing, have gowns with cuffed sleeves and cone-shaped bodices with high bust lines. The girl holding a cat was ten years old at the time the painting was done. Her youth is indicated by her gown that fastens at the back.

    Acc. Num: G1971-3374

  • Dress Textile

    Dress Textile

    1736-1742; Britain, worn in America; Gift of Mrs. Theodore Dreier; Silk brocaded with silk

    Brocaded silks of the 1730s had bold designs that appeared three-dimensional.

    Acc. Num: G1992-85A

  • Woman's Pocket

    Woman's Pocket

    1737, repaired later; England; Gift of Mrs. Cora Ginsburg; Linen embroidered with silk through coarser linen interlining, replaced linen lining and backing

    This pocket probably was the product of a professional embroiderer who did needlework for a living. Most women wore their pockets hidden under their petticoats.

    Acc. Num: 1989-437

  • Gown


    1740; England, the silk Spitalfields; 1775-1780; Gift of Tasha Tudor; Silk damask, linen lining

    Acc. Num: 2000-133

  • Sleeve Ruffles

    Sleeve Ruffles

    1740-1775; Europe, possibly France; Linen bobbin lace

    Acc. Num: 1985-126, 1-2

    accessory,adult,genderf,fashnacc,sleeve ruffles,1740-1750,1750-1770,1770-1785,
  • Apron


    1740-1775; England or Europe; Cotton embroidered with linen, later waistband

    Acc. Num: 1952-68

  • Fan


    1740-1775; China for export to west; Ivory, painted paper, metal and paste rivet

    Acc. Num: 1986-49

  • Stock


    1740-1760; England; Linen, silk marking thread; paper

    An envelope asserts that this was the "Stock of George 2nd," king of England from 1727 to 1760. Although the envelope dates to the 19th century and is not conclusive as documentation, the account may be true. The history is made more believable by virtue of the tiny cross-stitched crown and the number 46 stitched on the back of the tapered tab. The number suggests that the owner had at least 45 other stocks. The incredibly fine stitching and materials also help to support the history.

    Acc. Num: 1993-166

    clothing,adult,genderm,fmlacc,fashnacc,accessory,stock,neckwear,1740-1750,1750-1770 ,
  • Yellow Shoes with Braid Trim

    Yellow Shoes with Braid Trim

    ca. 1740-1750; England; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Silk trimmed with silk braid, leather, wood

    These shoes are embellished with applied braid similar to those in the portrait of Deborah Glen of Albany, painted about 1739. In period documents, shoes such as these would be called "laced," not to be confused with shoes with ties. These would be fastened with buckles.

    Acc. Num: 1991-557, 1-2

  • Yellow Brocaded Shoes and Buckles

    Yellow Brocaded Shoes and Buckles

    1740-1750, the buckles possibly ca.1790; London, England, worn in Maine; Purchase partially funded by Margie and Harold Gill, Kimberly Ivey, Linda Baumgarten and John Watson, and Liza and Wallace Gusler in memory of Mildred Lanier; Shoes: silk brocaded with silk, leather, linen, paper; buckles: silver, paste stones, steel; shoes: Thomas Ridout and James Davis

    Acc. Num: 2008-139, 1-2

    clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,shoes,buckle,1740-1750,1785-1795,worn in America ,
  • Lace Cap Lappets

    Lace Cap Lappets

    1740-1770; France; Linen needlepoint lace

    Acc. Num: 1953-152, 1

  • Lace Cap Lappet

    Lace Cap Lappet

    1740-1750; France, possibly Alençon; Linen needlepoint lace

    Acc. Num: 1953-156, 1

  • Earrings


    ca. 1740; England; Gold, paste, colored foil, enamel

    Acc. Num: 1953-61, 1-2

  • Watch with Chatelaine (Henry Fish)

    Watch with Chatelaine (Henry Fish)

    1740; London, England; Gold, rose gold, glass, copper alloy, steel, lead, pinchbeck (copper-zinc alloy), cornelian (a semi-precious gemstone), chalcedony (quartz crystal), paper, silk velvet

    Chatelaines were brooches or hooks suspended from the waist with pendants of useful implements, such as household keys, thimble cases, seals, watches, and the like. This chatelaine includes a watch, a watch key for winding the watch, and two seals for stamping the wax seal of a letter. The word chatelaine came to mean the mistress of a household.

    Acc. Num: 1952-601

  • Fan: "Battle of Porto Bello"

    Fan: "Battle of Porto Bello"

    1740; England; Ivory, printed and painted paper

    This fan depicts a 1739 battle in the Caribbean between Great Britain and Spain. Porto Bello in Panama was a Spanish naval base; the British won the Battle of Porto Bello and took over the base, to great acclaim at home.

    The Spanish-British war of the 1730s and 1740s was usually called the War of Jenkins Ear. The title came from a commercial sea captain named Robert Jenkins, who displayed before Parliament his severed ear damaged in 1731 by Spanish coast guards who had boarded his ship.

    Acc. Num: 1981-195

  • Unmade Sleeve Ruffle

    Unmade Sleeve Ruffle

    1740-1760; Europe; Cotton embroidered with linen

    Sleeve ruffles were usually shaped to be narrower at the inside crook of the arm, gradually lengthening so they fell gracefully from the back of the elbow.

    Acc. Num: 1985-130

    clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,sleeve ruffles,1740-1750,1750-1770,
  • Gown


    textile 1740-1760, gown remade 1780-1800; British textile, possibly worn in New York; Worsted damask, bodice lined with linen, reproduction kerchief and petticoat

    A widow may have worn this black worsted gown. Alterations and numerous mended holes are evidence that the garment saw many years of use. Typical of most elaborately patterned worsted textiles, this fabric measures only 17 inches between the selvages.

    Acc. Num: 1989-446

  • "Battle of Portobello" Fan

    "Battle of Portobello" Fan

    1740; London, England; Ivory, mother of pearl, brass, watercolor on printed paper; M. Gamble

    Fans often celebrated current events, such as the 1739 Battle of Portobello, an acclaimed British victory over the Spanish in Panama. This fan is also a good pictorial source for everyday clothing. Some of the sailors depicted on this fan wear jackets and short trousers typical of workingmen's clothing. Trousers of the eighteenth century were loose, comfortable pants that ranged from knee- to ankle-length.

    Acc. Num: 1981-195

  • Cap


    1740-1750; Brussels; From the collection of Marian Powys; Linen bobbin lace

    Although women's everyday caps were made of plain white linen or cotton, expensive dress caps were sometimes fashioned from handmade lace. The long decorative strips hanging from the cap were called lappets.

    Acc. Num: 1953-187

  • Breeches


    1740-1755; Europe or Britain; Uncut and voided velvet trimmed with metallic tape and buttons, waistband lined with linen

    Typical of men's breeches before about 1750, this pair fastens with a buttoned placket down the center front. Probably to save fabric, the tailor cut the breeches with the pattern running in two different directions on the front and back.

    Acc. Num: 1954-277

  • Fan: "Cartagena"

    Fan: "Cartagena"

    ca. 1741; England; Bone, printed and painted paper, wood, copper alloy

    The Battle of Cartagena, which took place in 1741, brought together English and American forces in a battle against Spain over control of Spain's holdings in the Caribbean. In contrast to Porto Bello, the British were unsuccessful at Cartagena, partly due to disease. Cartagena is located on the Caribbean Sea in present-day Colombia, South America.

    Acc. Num: 1985-109

  • Miniature Portrait of William Gooch

    Miniature Portrait of William Gooch

    1742-1746; London, England; Enamel on copper, gold; Studio of Christian Friedrich Zincke (1684-1767)

    As the engraved inscription around the miniature indicates, William Gooch died in 1742 at the age of 27. The miniature portrait was painted after his death as a memorial, possibly copying a larger portrait of him. As the only son of Virginia's royal governor, Sir William Gooch, and his wife, young William lived in the Williamsburg Governor's Palace.

    Acc. Num: 2000-39

  • "Taste in High Life"

    "Taste in High Life"

    1742, engraving reprinted 1808; London, England; Hard-ground etching and engraving on paper; engraved by Samuel Phillips after a painting by William Hogarth

    The central female figure wears a tentlike sack dress with loose flowing pleats at front and back, a style that had come into fashion around the 1720s. Eventually, the sack gown evolved to one with fitted front and pleated back. The man's suit has large cuffs and full skirts pleated at the sides.

    Acc. Num: 1950-697

  • Formal Gown

    Formal Gown

    1745-1750; altered 1770; Britain; Silk brocaded with silk and silver gilt threads, stomacher trimmed with silver-gilt lace and silk flowers, bodice lined with linen, sleeves lined with silk, reproduction neck ruffle

    Despite remodeling that is especially evident in the piecing of the sack back, this gown has superlative beauty. The heavily embellished gold stomacher and gilt brocading threads glitter in the light. Wavy lines of applied trim add extra pattern to the already lavish skirt front. The petticoat, or skirt worn beneath the outer gown, is made of a different silk textile, possibly because the original petticoat was cut up for the remodeling.

    Acc. Num: 1968-646, 1-3

  • "May" from the Months of the Year

    "May" from the Months of the Year

    1745; London, England; Thomas Burford (1710-1774)

    Acc. Num: 1988-291, 5

  • Shoe Buckles

    Shoe Buckles

    1745-1775; England; Silver, paste, steel

    Acc. Num: 1979-245, 1-2

  • Man's Pocketbook

    Man's Pocketbook

    1749; Constantinople or Mediterranean area; Silk satin embroidered with silk and silver gilt metallics

    Acc. Num: 1990-3

  • Mannequin


    1750-1785; Various objects, seen on the following pages

    From 1760 to 1780, women's gowns had closely-fitted bodices, sleeves that usually ended just below the elbows, and full skirts. The gown was only a small part of the look, however. Delicate and expensive white accessories, such as kerchiefs, aprons, and sleeve ruffles could dress up a plain dark gown. Shoes and stockings protected the feet, but also allowed the wearer to show off the latest fashion in the shape of the toe or the height of the heel. Removable shoe buckles changed the appearance of a pair of shoes while also serving to fasten the shoes in place.

    Acc. Num: n/a

  • Mannequin


    1750-1800; Various objects, seen on the following pages; reproduction wig, shirt, stock, breeches, stockings, and shoes

    The well-dressed man needed more than a suit to assure his place in fashionable society. From the wig or hat on his head to the tips of his buckled shoes, gentlemen's accessories could be practical, stylish, or both. Pastel colors and glittery stones were considered manly and appropriate for dressy occasions.

    Acc. Num: n/a

  • Spectacles


    1750-1785; Possibly England; Steel, tortoise, glass

    Acc. Num: 1952-487, A

  • Necklace and Earrings with original case

    Necklace and Earrings with original case

    1750-1785; England or Continental Europe; Jewelry: paste stones, silver, shown with reproduction ribbon on mannequin; Case: gilt leather, velvet, silk damask, wood, copper alloy hinge

    Although they may look like diamonds, less expensive paste stones set in silver created a brilliant effect in this matching set of necklace and earrings for pierced ears. The necklace has loops at the ends for ribbons to tie around the neck. The box has padded interior wells for housing the three matching pieces of jewelry when not worn.

    Acc. Num: 1960-878, 1-3

  • Stocking Purse

    Stocking Purse

    1750-1800; England; Anonymous gift; Silk sprang (oblique frame twining), metallic threads

    Acc. Num: 1971-1423

  • Two Buttons for Coat and Waistcoat

    Two Buttons for Coat and Waistcoat

    1750-1790; Probably France; Gift of Mrs. William Meredith; Silver metallic threads and silver plate on wooden form, linen thread

    Acc. Num: 1971-20, 21

  • Pointed Oval Knee Buckles

    Pointed Oval Knee Buckles

    1750-1785; England, worn in New York; Paste stones, rose gold, silver, steel

    According to family tradition, these buckles were handed down in the Van Rensselaer-Sanders family of New York. Family members wore them at their weddings as late as 1922. Note the T-shaped fitting on the back to slip through a buttonhole in the breeches knee band.

    Acc. Num: 1964-297, 3 and 4

    adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,wedding,jewelry,buckle,1750-1770,1770-1785,worn in America,
  • Walking Stick

    Walking Stick

    1750-1770; England; Gold, malacca; marked I. K., possibly Jasper Kelly

    Acc. Num: 1979-40

    adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,cane,walking stick,1750-1770,
  • Walking Stick

    Walking Stick

    1750-1770; England; Gilded copper alloy, lacquered ebony, reproduction tassel

    Acc. Num: 2008-36

    adult,genderm,fmlacc,fashnacc,accessory,walking stick,cane,1770-1785,
  • Stockings, Possibly Women's

    Stockings, Possibly Women's

    ca. 1750; England; Frame-knitted silk

    These stockings were knitted as flat pieces using stocking frames operated by male workmen. The foot or sole sections were knitted separately. The two pieces making up each stocking were then sewn together by female workers. Decorative areas at the ankles, called clocks, were either put in during the knitting process, as in these two examples, or embroidered after the stocking was taken off the frame.

    The stocking frame was invented in 1589 by Englishman William Lee. Although professionally frame-knit stockings were available for purchase, many housewives knit their family's stockings by hand using knitting needles.

    Acc. Num: 1975-182, 1

  • Stockings, Possibly Women's

    Stockings, Possibly Women's

    ca. 1750; England; Frame-knitted silk

    These stockings were knitted as flat pieces using stocking frames operated by male workmen. The foot or sole sections were knitted separately. The two pieces making up each stocking were then sewn together by female workers. Decorative areas at the ankles, called clocks, were either put in during the knitting process, as in these two examples, or embroidered after the stocking was taken off the frame.

    The stocking frame was invented in 1589 by Englishman William Lee. Although professionally frame-knit stockings were available for purchase, many housewives knit their family's stockings by hand using knitting needles.

    Acc. Num: 1954-1051, 1

  • Sleeve Buttons (Cuff Links)

    Sleeve Buttons (Cuff Links)

    mid-1700s; probably America; Gold; marked IB in rectangle (maker unidentified)

    Women sometimes wore sleeve buttons to fasten their shift sleeves. In the portrait of Deborah Glen, she holds up her right arm to show her fine lace-edged shift with two buttonholes in the cuff for removable sleeve buttons, linked together.

    Acc. Num: 1952-289, 1-2

    adult,genderf,genderm,accessory ,jewelry,button,1750-1770,american,
  • Brooch


    mid-1700s; Probably Europe; Garnets, pearls, gold, paste repairs

    Acc. Num: 1954-611

  • Sleeve Ruffles; Button-on Sleeve Ruffles

    Sleeve Ruffles; Button-on Sleeve Ruffles

    1750-1765; England or Europe; Linen embroidered with linen

    Acc. Num: 1985-129

    clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,sleeve ruffles,1750-1770,
  • Banyan and Matching Waistcoat

    Banyan and Matching Waistcoat

    ca. 1750, remodeled 1760-1770; Britain; Silk brocaded with silk, lined with linen and linen-cotton, reproduction shirt ruffles

    Although banyans were styled to be loose and comfortable, they were nevertheless worn with a full set of clothing underneath, including shirt, breeches, and waistcoat. This banyan has a sleeveless waistcoat made of matching fabric.

    Old pleats at the front are evidence that this banyan was remade from a woman's sack-back gown. Men's clothing usually differed in pattern from women's gowns. Except for embroidered formal wear, most suits were made with solid, striped, or small-patterned textiles. Only loose banyans such as this were considered suitable for large-scale damasks or brocaded silks.

    Acc. Num: 1941-208, 1-2

  • Man's Cocked Hat

    Man's Cocked Hat

    1750-1790; Britain, worn in New Hampshire; Felted fur trimmed with silk, lined with linen

    Josiah Bartlett, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and the first governor of New Hampshire, wore this cocked hat. The modern term for this triangular style of cocking is "tricorn hat."

    Acc. Num: 1960-911

  • Women's or Men's Stockings

    Women's or Men's Stockings

    ca. 1750; England; Frame-knitted silk with knitted-in clocks

    The finest stockings were knitted of silk and decorated at the ankles with clocks, decorative embroidery or knitted-in designs. These knitted stockings were made on a stocking frame, or knitting machine, as two flat pieces. The curved edges of the larger piece were later joined by hand to form a center-back leg seam. The sole was a separate smaller piece that was sewn into the foot.

    Acc. Num: 1975-182, 1-2

  • Gown and Petticoat

    Gown and Petticoat

    ca. 1755; altered 1770; Britain; Gift of Mrs. Cora Ginsburg; Silk brocaded with silver and silver gilt, lined with silk and linen, trimmed with later silver lace

    This sumptuous gown is fashioned from stiff silk brocaded with glittering metallic silver to reflect the available light. The rich textile and wide hoops mark it as "formal" dress in an era when fashionable daytime clothing no longer had significant side fullness. Unlike many other dresses that had removable triangular stomachers, this gown has panels on the bodice that are stitched in place and closed with buttons and buttonholes down the center front. Button-front mock stomachers such as this example came into fashion during the mid-1760s.

    Acc. Num: G1990-12, 1-2

  • Gown and Petticoat

    Gown and Petticoat

    ca. 1755; altered 1770; Chinese textile, made in France; Ribbed silk hand painted with pigments and silver, trimmed with silk lace, lined with linen

    Chinese artisans made textiles specifically for export to Europe and America. With its intricate hand-painted floral design and silver outlines, this textile would have been a luxury item. Styled as a robe à la française (in England, known as a sack), the back has pleats at the shoulders that release into a graceful train. The mock stomacher buttons down the front. The skirt and petticoat originally had applied ruffles or flounces, perhaps removed to update the gown.

    Acc. Num: 1993-330, a-b

  • "Tetuan" Pocketbook

    "Tetuan" Pocketbook

    1755; Used in Chesterfield, England; made in Tetuan, Northern Morocco or Mediterranean Area; Leather, silver gilt threads

    Acc. Num: 1985-231

  • Quilted Petticoat

    Quilted Petticoat

    1755; Connecticut River Valley; Silk quilted to worsted backing, woolen batting, linen waistband; made by S. W.

    This petticoat features diamonds filled with a variety of motifs, including flowers, fish, birds, and other animals; it is dated 1755 in the quilting and signed by an unknown woman whose initials were S. W. Although ready-made quilted petticoats were imported, some girls and women quilted their own petticoats at home. Many of them used imported materials, such as the silk in this example.

    Acc. Num: 1994-88

  • Hat


    1760-1785; England; Silk over straw, replaced ties

    Acc. Num: 1970-104

  • Apron


    1760-1780; England; Cotton embroidered with cotton, replaced waistband

    The embroidery is worked with chain stitches and large areas of "drawnwork," in which the ground fabric is deflected, pulled, and caught with stitches to imitate lace.

    Acc. Num: 1953-857

  • Woman's Workbag

    Woman's Workbag

    1760-1780; England; Silk embroidered with silk, metallic sequins, enameled metal, and silver lace

    This clever workbag incorporates four compartments for needlework and knitting supplies: a small compartment at the top with flip-up lid, a drawer that pulls out from the side, a drop-down semicircular compartment with pincushion sides, and a drawstring bag with interior channels for holding knitting needles in place. The rigid structure appears to be made of paperboard and trade cards. The words "A. King's Dover Street" can be read through the thin silk. This probably refers to the as-yet unidentified milliner who made the bag.

    Acc. Num: 1960-730

  • Pocketbook with Lock of Hair

    Pocketbook with Lock of Hair

    1760-1780; France; Anonymous gift; Silk, silver gilt metallic threads, paint, paperboard, hair

    Inside this pocketbook is a lock of silky hair, probably that of a child. When and why was the hair tucked into the case? Was it a loving gesture on the part of a parent or grandparent? No information was included in the pocketbook about the hair, so we may never know.

    Acc. Num: 1971-1401

  • Man's Breeches to a Three-Piece Suit

    Man's Breeches to a Three-Piece Suit

    1760-1780; England or Europe, worn in Virginia; Partial gift of Diane S. Taylor; Silk velvet; linen, linen/cotton, and leather linings; silver metallic buttons and knee bands

    Men's breeches, or knee-length pants, had a number of fasteners. This pair has a tab at the back for adjusting the waist size with a buckle (the buckle is missing). Other breeches had eyelets and laces for this purpose. Where the buttons were hidden by the waistcoat, or vest, they are covered with fabric. Because the lower legs and knees were more visible, elaborate silver plate and silver bullion buttons fastened the side knee openings. The band below the knees, sometimes called a garter, was buckled tightly to help hold the stockings up and keep the breeches firmly in place as the man moved. Knee buckles were removable; they had a special T-shaped fitting to allow them to be slipped in place through a buttonhole stitched in the knee band.

    Acc. Num: 1992-37, 3

  • Stock Buckle

    Stock Buckle

    1760-1780; England; Silver, paste stones, steel

    Despite its glittering stones, this buckle would have been worn at the back of the neck, nearly hidden by the gentleman's coat collar and wig.

    Acc. Num: 1952-293

  • Stock Buckle

    Stock Buckle

    ca. 1760; Probably American; Gift of Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Bond; Silver; marked PS, maker unidentified

    Acc. Num: 1976-80

  • Sleeve Ruffle

    Sleeve Ruffle

    1760-1785; England or Europe; Cotton embroidered with linen, linen tape

    Acc. Num: 1985-1282, 1

    clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,sleeve ruffles,1750-1770,1770-1785,
  • Stays


    1760-1775; Possibly America; Worsted wool lined with linen, leather binding, unidentified boning

    These strapless stays laced up the front instead of the back. This arrangement made them suitable for pregnant women, nursing women, and those who did not have assistance while getting dressed.

    Acc. Num: 1993-336

  • Suit Coat, Waistcoat, and Breeches

    Suit Coat, Waistcoat, and Breeches

    1760-1780; British textile, probably worn in Virginia; Partial gift of Diane Taylor; Silk velvet trimmed with silver-bullion-and-tinsel buttons, lined with silk, linen, and linen-cotton

    According to family history, a twentieth-century customer gave this suit to his tailor to settle an unpaid bill. Said to be worn by "a Virginia gentleman," the suit is made of spotted silk velvet.

    Acc. Num: 1992-37, 1-3

  • Stock Buckle

    Stock Buckle

    1760-1780; Probably England; Silver, paste stones

    The knobs on one side of the buckle were slipped into worked buttonholes on the tab of a neck stock. The stock was buckled behind the man's neck.

    Acc. Num: 1952-293

  • Suit Coat, Waistcoat, and Breeches

    Suit Coat, Waistcoat, and Breeches

    1760-1775; Britain; Compound-weave silk relined with modern silk and linen, breeches waistband lined with eighteenth-century linen-cotton, leather breeches pockets

    Small-scale enclosed patterns such as the design of this silk textile were considered especially appropriate for men's suits.

    Acc. Num: 1953-838, 1-3

  • Gown


    1760-1770, remodeled ca. 1785; France; Silk brocaded with silk, trimmed with silk fringe, bodice lined with linen, reproduction kerchief and petticoat

    The serpentine, or meandering, lines in this brocaded silk are typical of 1760s design. The gown was later remodeled with the plunging neckline, edge-to-edge front closure, and S-curve silhouette that became popular after 1785.

    Acc. Num: 1985-144

  • Apron


    1760-1780; Britain; Cotton embroidery on cotton

    Acc. Num: 1953-857

  • Miniature Portrait of a Member of the Fauquier Family, used as Bracelet

    Miniature Portrait of a Member of the Fauquier Family, used as Bracelet

    1761; England, London; Gift of Gilbert Fauquier in memory of his father, Gilbert Emilius Fauquier; Watercolor on paper or cardstock, glass, gold, rubies, paste stones backed with silver foil, garnet, reproduction ribbon; John Smart (ca. 1740-1811)

    Acc. Num: 1973-246

  • "The Studious Fair (possibly Queen Charlotte)"

    "The Studious Fair (possibly Queen Charlotte)"

    ca. 1761; London, England; Charles Spooner after Mary Benwell (active 1761-1800)

    Acc. Num: 1971-477

  • Coat


    1765-1780; England or Europe; Silk, metallic sequins and threads, linen

    Acc. Num: 1970-155

  • Wig Stands

    Wig Stands

    1765-1810; England; Mahogany

    Acc. Num: 1947-278, 1-2

  • Shoe and Knee Buckles with Case

    Shoe and Knee Buckles with Case

    1768-1785; Britain, worn in New York by members of the Glen-Sanders family; Steel, paste, shagreen leather, silk, paper

    A paper inscription glued to the bottom of the buckle case states that Philip and Maria Van Rensselaer wore these buckles at their wedding about 1770 (it actually occurred in 1768) and that their descendants, J. Glen and Pearl Green Sanders, wore them when they married in 1922. The silk lining on the box is inscribed with the name Eliza Van Rensselaer. Eliza, or Elizabeth (1771-1798), was the daughter of Philip and Maria.

    Acc. Num: 1964-297, 1-4

  • Walking Stick

    Walking Stick

    1769-1770; England; Acquisition funded by the Antiques Collectors Guild in memory of Alvin Anderson and John Hyman; Gold, malacca, copper alloy; marked I. C. (maker unidentified)

    Acc. Num: 2008-35

    adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,cane,walking stick,1750-1770,1770-1785,
  • Formal Suit

    Formal Suit

    1770-1800; France; Silk embroidery and appliquéd silk net on striped silk and ribbed silk, lined with silk and cotton-linen

    The combination of multicolor embroidery on a striped ground enhances the richness of this suit. The white waistcoat contrasts with the dark coat and breeches, although the embroidered design echoes that of the coat.

    Acc. Num: 1956-306, 1-3

  • Shoes


    1770s; Probably England, worn in Massachusetts, probably by Mary Ball Willis; Gift of Tibo van der Does; Brocaded silk, linen, leather

    Acc. Num: 2007-107, 1-2

    clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,shoes,1770-1785,worn in America,
  • Handkerchief, Hunting Song, R. Davids

    Handkerchief, Hunting Song, R. Davids

    ca. 1770; England; Plate-printed linen

    This handkerchief features a scene of fox hunting in the British countryside. Can you find the fox?

    A popular period hunting song is printed around the edges. A handkerchief similar to this design was worn by John Cockil, an English convict servant and barber who ran away from his Fredericksburg, Virginia, master in 1772. The March 19, 1772, Virginia Gazette newspaper states that the runaway was wearing "a red and white Handkerchief round his Neck, with a hunting Song round the Borders of it."

    The verses around the edges of the handkerchief read:

    Away to the Copse to the Copse lead away,
    and now my Boys throw off ye Hounds.
    I'll warrant he shews us he shews us some Play,
    See Yonder he skulks thro the Grounds.
    Then spur ye brisk Coursers & smoke e'm my Bloods
    'tis a delicate scent lying Morn.
    What Concert is equal to those of the Woods,
    betwixt Eccho ye Hounds & ye Horn.
    Each Earth see he try's at in vain,
    The Cover no safer can find.
    So he breaks it and scowers amain,
    And leave's us at distance behind.
    O'er Rocks and o'er Rivers and Hedges we fly,
    All Hazard and Danger we scorn,
    Stout Reynard we'll follow untill that he die.
    Cheer up the Good Dogs with the Horn.
    And now he scarce creeps thro' the Dale,
    All parch'd from his Mouth hangs his Tongue,
    His speed can no longer prevail
    Nor his Life can his cunning prolong,
    From our staunch & fleet Pack 'twas in vain that he fled,
    See his Brush falls bemir'd forlorn,
    The Farmers with Pleasure behold him lie dead
    And shout to the sound of the Horn.

    Acc. Num: 1966-19

    adult,genderf,genderm,evydyacc,accessory,handkerchief,1770-1785,used in America,
  • Rectangular Buckles with Openwork

    Rectangular Buckles with Openwork

    1770-1800; England or America; Silver, steel

    Acc. Num: 1953-239, 1-2

  • "The Englishman in Paris"

    "The Englishman in Paris"

    1770; London, England; Hand-colored line engraving; engraved by James Caldwell after a painting by John Collet, printed for John Smith and Robert Sayer

    A sturdy Englishman endures the torture of having his wig powdered by a dandified French barber-hairdresser. The gentleman wears an apron to protect his clothing from stray powder.

    Besides constructing hairpieces, wigmakers styled men and women's hair and shaved gentlemen. During the first three-quarters of the eighteenth century, most fashionable men shaved their heads and donned wigs, considered indispensable fashion accessories. Toward the end of the century, wigs gradually went out of fashion. Men began to wear their own hair, which they had styled and powdered for dressy occasions. Although few women wore wigs, some added extra curls to their own hair.

    Acc. Num: 1940-174

  • Collar Made from Sleeve Ruffles

    Collar Made from Sleeve Ruffles

    ca. 1770; Probably England; after 1800; Gift of Kathleen A. Epstein; Cotton embroidered with cotton

    Sleeve ruffles cascading from the elbows went out of fashion with the newer neoclassical styles. The innovative woman who owned this pair of sleeve ruffles re-fashioned the beautiful embroidery into a collar to fill in the neckline of a dress.

    Acc. Num: 1997-15

    clothing,adult ,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,collar,sleeve ruffles,1770-1785,1795-1815,
  • Pudding Cap

    Pudding Cap

    1770-1785; Britain; Cotton velvet lined with leather, bound with silk, stuffed with curled horsehair

    Puddings were protective helmets for children learning to walk.

    Acc. Num: 1952-55

  • Banyan


    1770-1790; East Indian textile, made in Britain; Mordant-painted and dyed cotton chintz faced with silk, lined with cotton; shown with cap 1991-498

    This banyan is more closely tailored than the large kimono-like gowns men also wore for informal occasions. The double-breasted front fastens closed with self-fabric ties.

    Acc. Num: 1954-1010

  • Petticoat


    1770-1820; New England or Britain; Linen-wool, wool hem binding, linen waistband

    The striped petticoat is woven with linen warps and wool wefts. Unlike that of typical garment construction methods, the fabric here is used horizontally with the warps running around the body, not up and down. Originally discovered in Connecticut, the petticoat may be the work of a New England weaver. Similar textiles were also produced in Kendal, England.

    Acc. Num: 1991-444

  • Man's Pink Waistcoat

    Man's Pink Waistcoat

    1770-1780; Britain; Silk and silver tissue edged with sequins, lined with silk and linen

    Acc. Num: 1960-711

  • Man's Cream Waistcoat

    Man's Cream Waistcoat

    1770-1780; Britain; Silk embroidered with silk, metal purl, sequins, and paste, lined with silk and linen, linen back

    Acc. Num: 1960-710

  • Frock Coat

    Frock Coat

    1770-1780; Britain; Wool broadcloth trimmed with gilt-metallic edging and sequins, lined with glazed worsted and linen

    Acc. Num: 1979-83

  • "Lady Fashion's Secretary's Office, or Peticoat Recommendation the Best"

    "Lady Fashion's Secretary's Office, or Peticoat Recommendation the Best"

    1772; London, England; Mezzotint engraving on paper; printed for Carington Bowles

    Typical of the fashion dress in the 1770s, the man wears a slim-cut suit with tight knee breeches. The woman wears a profusion of bows and ruffles on her gown and a large cap with extra height.

    Acc. Num: 1952-151

  • "Wigs"


    1773; London, England; Matthew Darly

    Acc. Num: 1939-231

  • Handkerchief, "Claiming the Gammon of Bacon"

    Handkerchief, "Claiming the Gammon of Bacon"

    1774-1780; England; Plate-printed cotton

    The English village of Dunmow in Essex had a long-standing tradition in which a married couple that had remained faithful and happy for a year could claim a "gammon" of bacon. A gammon was the lower end of a side of bacon or a smoked ham. The custom has been revived in the town of Dunmow in modern times, and is still scheduled every four years.

    The verse on the handkerchief reads:

    You shall Swear by the custom of our confession
    That you never made any Nuptial transgression,
    Since you were Married Man and Wife,
    By household brawls or contentious strife;
    Or otherwise, in Bed, or at Board,
    Offended each other in Deed, or in word;
    Or since the Parish-Clerk said Amen,
    Wished yourselves Unmarried again;
    Or in a Twelvemonths and a Day,
    Repented not in thought any way;
    But continued true, and in desire,
    As when you joined hands in holy quire.
    If to these Conditions, without any fear,
    Of your own accord you will freely swear;
    A Gammon of Bacon you shall receive,
    And bear it hence with love, and good leave;
    For this our custom, at Dunmow well known,
    Tho the sport is ours, the Bacon's your own.

    Acc. Num: 1967-102

  • The Man of Business

    The Man of Business

    1774; London, England; Gift of Mrs. Cora Ginsburg; Line engraving on paper; Matthew or Mary Darly

    The expectant women in this humorous print wear a variety of kerchiefs and aprons to adapt their clothing to changing body shapes. Their skirt hems ride up in front, evidence that pregnant women did not usually modify their skirt lengths during this time. Letters and diaries reveal that women went about daily chores and socializing during pregnancy.

    Acc. Num: G1985-261

  • Shoe Buckles

    Shoe Buckles

    1775-1800; England; Silver, paste stones, steel

    Acc. Num: 1954-614, 1-2

  • Handkerchief, "The Right Hon.ble John Wilkes, Esq.r"

    Handkerchief, "The Right Hon.ble John Wilkes, Esq.r"

    ca. 1775; England; Gift of Sir Denys Lowson; Printed linen

    John Wilkes (1725-1797) was a controversial British political figure and a member of parliament who became known for his defense of the rights of ordinary citizens. In the mid 1770s, he defended the cause of the American colonies. A handkerchief such as this would have been a popular accessory, not only for the citizens of London who shared Wilkes' political views, but also for Americans.

    Wilkes holds the Magna Charta, the 1215 document that guaranteed greater rights to English citizens. Wilkes steps on papers labeled "General Warrants." This alludes to the 1763 search and arrest warrants that were issued against Wilkes and the others involved in a newspaper that Wilkes had used to criticize the administration. The handkerchief also refers to the questionable legality of general, broad-based warrants, which lacked specifics about the alleged crime.

    Acc. Num: 1951-447

    adult,genderf,genderm,evydyacc,accessory,handkerchief,1770-1785,used in America,
  • Shoe Buckles

    Shoe Buckles

    ca. 1775; England or America; Silver, steel, one replaced steel chape; marked WH (maker unidentified)

    Acc. Num: 1952-295, 1-2

  • Spectacles with Case

    Spectacles with Case

    1775-1810; Possibly America; Spectacles: glass, brass; case: steel

    Acc. Num: 1956-234, a-b

  • Cream and Blue Shoe

    Cream and Blue Shoe

    1775-1785; London, England, worn in Maryland by Ringgold family member; Silk, linen, leather; Hose & Spier Shoemakers

    Acc. Num: 1996-852, 1

    clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,shoes,1770-1785,worn in America ,
  • Shoe Buckles with Case

    Shoe Buckles with Case

    1775-1790; England; Buckles: silver, paste stones, copper, steel; Case: leather, wood, silk, paper

    Acc. Num: 1953-237, 1A-B and 2

  • Black Shoe

    Black Shoe

    1775-1785; Probably England, worn in New York by Glen Sanders family member; Silk, linen, leather

    Acc. Num: 1964-394, 1

    clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,shoe,1770-1785,worn in America ,
  • Man's Pink Waistcoat

    Man's Pink Waistcoat

    1775-1785; Britain; Silk trimmed with silk and metallic embroidery and sequins, lined with linen

    Acc. Num: 1960-707

  • Short Gown

    Short Gown

    1775-1815; Textiles printed in England; gown worn in America; Block printed cotton; linen tape; linen sewing thread

    For physical labor and very informal occasions, women wore loose short gowns with separate petticoats as comfortable alternatives to tight-fitting gowns with long, full skirts. Short gowns were relatively inexpensive, as they required a minimum of fabric. The printed cotton added pattern and color to an everyday garment.

    This rare garment is exceptionally fragile. The iron in the mordant used for the printing has caused some colors to darken to brown and to etch through the cotton. The brown colors were probably purple when the gown was new.

    The neckline and back shoulders have stitched casings and drawstrings to provide some fit to the otherwise-unshaped garment. The gown is of small size and may have been worn by a girl.

    Acc. Num: 1985-242

  • Apron


    1776; America; Gift of Evelyn Schroedl; Linen marked with silk; made by E F

    Workingwomen wore aprons of washable linen or cotton, sometimes patterned with checks, such as this example. The unidentified maker embroidered her initials E F and 1776 in minuscule cross-stitches near the waistband.

    Acc. Num: G1999-225

  • Man's Wallet and Notebook

    Man's Wallet and Notebook

    1777; England; Leather, paper, steel

    William Daniel had his wallet personalized with his name and the date 1777. Inside is a notebook with marbleized covers. The note pages include paper, as well as black leaves covered in paint with carbon content, similar to a slate, for making easily erasable notes.

    Acc. Num: 1975-129

  • "Buckles and Buttons"

    "Buckles and Buttons"

    1777; London, England; Matthew Darly

    This humorous print satirizes the fashion for large, glittering buttons on men's suits. About the same time, shoe buckles also became oversized, almost covering the instep.

    Acc. Num: 1950-608

  • "The Old Maids Morning Visit or the Calash Lady's"

    "The Old Maids Morning Visit or the Calash Lady's"

    1777; London, England; Matthew Darly (1741-1792)

    Acc. Num: 1953-117

  • Benjamin Franklin

    Benjamin Franklin

    1777; Engraved by John Martin Will after a drawing by Charles Nicolas Cochin, France; Mezzotint engraving on paper

    Through his personality and wearing apparel, Benjamin Franklin helped to create the belief that Americans were individualistic, freedom-loving, and immune to royal trappings. Especially in his later years, Franklin became known for his distinctive appearance, including spectacles, a fur cap, and long hair, which he wore down instead of drawn back in a queue. Franklin appeared at the court of France's Louis XVI in 1778 without the wig that was customary formal dress. He wore a suit of plain dark velvet and no sword, causing an observer to comment, "I should have taken him for a big farmer, so great was his contrast with the other diplomats, who were all powdered, in full dress, and splashed all over with gold and ribbons."

    Acc. Num: 1959-82

  • Formal or Court Gown

    Formal or Court Gown

    1780-1790; Britain; Silk woven with silver-gilt threads, trimmed with silver gilt lace, sequins, gimp, and tassels, bodice lined with linen

    This gown is a dramatic example of a time lag in formal clothing. Although the wide skirt was typical of mid-18th-century styles, the deep point at this gown's back waist indicates a date in the 1780s. The crisp silk textile is dotted with metallic silver threads woven from selvage to selvage, a type of fabric called "silver tissue."

    Acc. Num: 1953-849, 1-2

  • Shoe Buckles

    Shoe Buckles

    1780-1800; Probably England, worn in Virginia, probably by a Prentis family member; Paste, silver, steel

    Acc. Num: 1978-89, 1-2

    adult,genderf,genderm,fmlacc,fashnacc,accessory,buckle,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,worn in America,
  • Handkerchief, "The Game of the Goose"

    Handkerchief, "The Game of the Goose"

    1780-1790; England; Cotton, plate-printed

    Women frequently carried handkerchiefs in their large tie-on pockets. During the 18th century, handkerchiefs were made of plain white linen or printed textiles, sometimes depicting a scene or sentiment. This handkerchief was also used as a game board and rules for the "Game of the Goose," which was played by throwing a pair of dice. Each player rolled the dice and added the two numbers together, advancing that number of positions on the game surface. If a player landed in one of the special locations, such as the Ale House, Well, or Prison, he or she had to abide by the rules for that location. For example, anyone landing on the Death square had to pay a penalty and start over. The player who reached 63 first without going over won the game.

    The Game of the Goose
    1st This Game is playd with a pair of Dice and any Number of persons
    may play at it. 2nd Whatever Number it is that any one throws that person must place
    his Counter in the White space under the same Number, for Example, should the Cast be 6&3 he
    must place the Counter at 9, if the Cast be 6&5 he must place it at 11 & when he throws again he must add the
    Number to that where his Counter lyes and so [remove] accordingly. 3rd He that throws 6 must pay a Stake
    for his passage over the Bridge and go to Number 12. 4th He that throws a Goose must double his Cast for-
    ward from his Cast place. 5 He that throws 19 where the Ale House is must pay a Stake & Drink
    till his turn comes to throw again. 6 He that throws 31 where the Well is must stay there till every
    one has thrown twice unless some One else throws the same & then he must return to that persons
    place. 7th He that throws 42 where the Maze is must pay a Stake and return back to the num-
    ber 29. 8th He that goeth to 52 where the Prison is must pay one and stay there a prisoner
    till some One relieves him by throwing the same Number. 9th He that [seeth] to 58 where
    Death is must pay One and begin again. 10th He that is overtaken by another must return to
    His place that overtook him & both must pay a stake. 11 He that overthroweth the
    Number 63 must return back and begin as at first.----------------
    12th He that throweth the just Number 63 Winneth the Game.

    Acc. Num: 1961-129

  • Pocketbook with Comb, Folding Knives and Nail File, Lead Holder, and Writing Tablet

    Pocketbook with Comb, Folding Knives and Nail File, Lead Holder, and Writing Tablet

    probably 1780-1800, altered 1860-1880, with later pencil; England; Silk, gold, enamel, mother-of-pearl, ivory, steel, copper alloy, amber, paste jewels

    Fitted interior compartments house the functional but beautiful implements inside: a tortoiseshell comb, mother-of-pearl folding knife and file, an ivory writing tablet, and a lead pencil for making notes.

    The pocketbook hints at puzzling questions. The gold outer clasp appears to date to the late 18th century, based on its style and an analysis of the metal. The interior clasp, knife, and nail file date after 1860. Because the interior enamel clasp is backed by the pink lining, the lining must also date after 1860. Did someone remodel and reline a late 18th century purse in the 1860s or 1870s? Was the purse completely remade in the 19th century using parts from several older purses? For what occasion did someone create such a beautiful assemblage of materials?

    Acc. Num: 1952-341

  • Rectangular Buckle with Rounded Corners

    Rectangular Buckle with Rounded Corners

    1780-1800; England, probably Sheffield; Anonymous gift; Silver-faced steel

    Acc. Num: 1971-3504, 1

  • Clergyman's or Barrister's Stock with Short Bands

    Clergyman's or Barrister's Stock with Short Bands

    1780-1830; England; Linen, with finer linen bands

    Acc. Num: 1953-863

  • Clergyman's or Barrister's Stock with Short Bands

    Clergyman's or Barrister's Stock with Short Bands

    1780-1830; England; Fine cotton, linen tabs and ties

    Acc. Num: 1953-864

  • Kerchief


    1780-1795; England or Europe; Cotton embroidered with silk

    Throughout the 18th century, women wore triangles or folded squares of fabric over the shoulders and around their necks for warmth, modesty, and decoration. These accessories were known as kerchiefs, or neck handkerchiefs. In the 19th century, similar garments were called fichus. In the 1780s, fashionable kerchiefs were large and worn puffed out over the chest. This kerchief is marked S*L in tiny cross stitches, the initials of the unknown wearer.

    Acc. Num: 1985-131

  • Pink Work Bag or Purse

    Pink Work Bag or Purse

    1780-1800; Probably France; Silk embroidered with silk, silk flowers, silk lace

    Acc. Num: 1958-26

  • Cream Work Bag or Purse

    Cream Work Bag or Purse

    ca. 1780; France; Silk embroidered with silk, metal sequins, silk fringe

    Acc. Num: 1958-27

    container,adult,genderf,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1770-1785 ,
  • "The Spruce Sportsman, or Beauty the Best Shot"

    "The Spruce Sportsman, or Beauty the Best Shot"

    1780; London, England; Carington Bowles

    Acc. Num: 1958-356

  • Green Calash (Collapsible Bonnet)

    Green Calash (Collapsible Bonnet)

    ca. 1780; England; Silk, reeds

    Calashes had a series of reeds or other flexible materials inserted between channels in the silk to hold the bonnet away from the head and thus preserve elaborate hair styles from being crushed. The name of the calash came from a type of carriage with a folding hood, not unlike the cloth convertible top on a modern automobile.

    Acc. Num: 1960-723

  • Black Calash (Collapsible Bonnet)

    Black Calash (Collapsible Bonnet)

    ca. 1780; England; Silk, reeds

    Acc. Num: 1960-722

  • Maternity Ensemble

    Maternity Ensemble

    1780-1795; Britain; Cotton quilted to linen backing and cotton batting, reproduction shift

    This ensemble consists of a jacket, petticoat, and a vest worn under the jacket. The sleeveless vest, which has adjustable lacings at the center back, expands the waist size for use during pregnancy. The jacket can also be worn without the vest.

    Acc. Num: 1936-666, 1-3

  • "A Journeyman Parson with a Bare Existence"

    "A Journeyman Parson with a Bare Existence"

    ca. 1780; London, England; Carington Bowles

    The mother has pushed aside her gown and kerchief to nurse her child.

    Acc. Num: 1971-476

  • Breeches


    1780-1820; Britain; Mohair and wool velvet lined with cotton

    Long-nap wool or mohair velvet, called shagg, was popular for workingmen's clothing and livery breeches. In contrast to today's construction methods, these breeches were cut with the nap running in different directions on the front and back, a feature that is especially evident at the inseam. Cutting the breeches in this way may have saved fabric.

    Acc. Num: 1954-1036

  • Woman's Jacket

    Woman's Jacket

    ca. 1780, altered ca. 1800; France or England; Block-printed cotton trimmed with silk binding, lined with linen, metal lacing rings

    This jacket was modified to keep up with fashion. Without altering the basic cut of the original garment, the owner roughly stitched a strip of self-fabric above the natural waist for holding a petticoat in position after fashion dictated higher waistlines.

    Acc. Num: 2000-86

  • Unmade Waistcoat

    Unmade Waistcoat

    1780-1795; France, possibly imported to Virginia; Silk compound weave with supplementary wefts

    Intended for a man's waistcoat, this panel descended in an Accomack, Virginia, family. The reason it was never cut and sewn into a finished garment remains a mystery.

    Acc. Num: 1954-284

  • Stockings


    ca. 1782; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Linen, silk marking threads

    According to a paper document that came with the stockings, they were hand knitted by Catherine Jansen Wistar (1703-1786), probably for her daughter Sarah Wistar, whose initials SW are cross-stitched on the stockings. The Wistars were Quakers from Philadelphia. Women continued hand-knitting stockings, even though professionally frame-knitted stockings were also being produced. If the family tradition is correct, these stockings were knitted about the time the Revolutionary War was ending when imported goods were still scarce.

    Acc. Num: 2009-43, 4 a-b

  • Infant's Shirt and Sleeve Buttons (bottom)

    Infant's Shirt and Sleeve Buttons (bottom)

    ca. 1784, sleeve buttons 1730-1760; Probably Maine; Gift of Mrs. Charles D. Carey; Linen trimmed with linen bobbin lace, gold

    This lace-trimmed shirt and cuff links have a history of use by Jane Hodge (later Mrs. Thomas Nichols) of Maine. She was born in 1784. The linked gold buttons descended in the family with the shirt, although their design appears earlier than the 1780s; they may have been handed down from a previous generation. (Seen with acc. num 1971-1570)

    Acc. Num: G1991-1180, 1-2

  • Spectacles with Green Lenses

    Spectacles with Green Lenses

    1785-1800; Probably England; Anonymous gift; Glass, iron

    Acc. Num: 1971-1236

  • Mitts


    1785-1840; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Cotton

    These mitts descended in a family of Philadelphia Quakers, a group conservative in their choice of clothing and accessories. For that reason, the mitts, which appear fashionable for the 1780s or 1790s, might have been used well into the 19th century.

    Acc. Num: 2009-43, 6 A-B

  • "March" from the Months of the Year Series

    "March" from the Months of the Year Series

    ca. 1785; London, England; Robert Dighton (1752-1814) and Carington Bowles

    Acc. Num: 1972-177, 3

  • "July" from the Months of the Year Series

    "July" from the Months of the Year Series

    ca. 1785; London, England; Robert Dighton (1752-1814) and Carington Bowles

    Acc. Num: 1972-177, 7

  • Muff


    1785-1810; Europe, possibly France; Silk, silk chenille and gauze, metallic sequins and bullion, paint; replaced lining and cotton stuffing

    The hand-painted ornament depicts the allegorical figure of Hope with her anchor. The muff originally had strings or ribbons drawn through channels on the ends to snug the fit around the wrists. Faint stitch marks show the original position of the drawstring channels. Muffs were important fashion accessories during this period, worn even indoors.

    Acc. Num: 1958-25

  • Lady's Pocket Watch

    Lady's Pocket Watch

    ca. 1785; Geneva, Switzerland; Gift of Edward P. Hamilton; Gold, pearls, enameling, copper; interior works steel, copper alloy, gold, silver; Baumier, Viala, Marchand & Co.

    A watch chain would help secure a valuable watch from loss, while keeping it readily available for telling the time.

    Acc. Num: 1954-202

  • Shoe Buckles

    Shoe Buckles

    1785-1820; England; Silver, paste stones, iron/steel

    Acc. Num: 1954-614, 1-2

  • Formal or Court Coat

    Formal or Court Coat

    1790-1820; France; Gifts of Mark A. Clark; Velvet and ribbed silk embroidered with silk, lined with silk, interlined and padded with wool and cotton batting, cotton pockets, reproduction breeches

    Eighteenth-century formal suits were often masterpieces of the embroiderer's art. This suit coat of rich blue cut and voided silk velvet is strewn with colorful flowers that are beautifully designed and worked with great skill. The coordinating waistcoat has the same flowers worked on a white ground.

    Acc. Num: G1971-433, G1971-429

  • Pink Stocking Purse

    Pink Stocking Purse

    1790-1840; Probably England; Anonymous gift; Knitted silk top; buttonhole stitched needle lace base of silk and metallic threads; metal ring

    Acc. Num: 1971-1458

  • Purple Stocking Purse

    Purple Stocking Purse

    1790-1840; England; Anonymous gift; Knitted silk and metallic threads, metal rings

    Acc. Num: 1971-1427

  • Shoe Buckles and Case

    Shoe Buckles and Case

    ca. 1790; England, used in Virginia; Gift of Elizabeth Wilson; Buckles: silver, paste stones, copper, steel; Case: leather, wood, paper, later foil lining

    The family of Virginian John Minson Galt (1744-1808) cherished his shoe buckles as mementos of the illustrious physician and patriot. A later family member relined the case and wrote the history on a piece of paper: "Shoe Buckles that belonged to my gr, gr, Grandfather, Dr. John Minson Galt, Chief surgeon Va. Military Troops during the Revolutionary War.—Alex Galt Robinson."

    Acc. Num: 1980-27, 1, A-B and 2

    adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,buckle,1785-1795,worn in America,
  • Rectangular Buckle with Rounded Corners and Beadlike Decoration

    Rectangular Buckle with Rounded Corners and Beadlike Decoration

    1790s; England; Anonymous gift; Silver, steel

    Acc. Num: 1971-3504, 2

  • Stock Buckle

    Stock Buckle

    ca. 1790; England, possibly worn in Virginia; Silver, steel

    Acc. Num: 1978-88

    adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,neckwear,buckle,1785-1795,worn in America ,
  • "Francklin" (Benjamin Franklin)

    "Francklin" (Benjamin Franklin)

    ca. 1790; France; P. M. Alex after a painting by Amédée Vanloo

    Acc. Num: 1994-74

  • Fan: "The Bath Gift"

    Fan: "The Bath Gift"

    1790-1797; England, used in Connecticut; Paper, metallic sequins, paint, bone

    Descended along with the portrait of Deborah Richmond of Connecticut (1974.100.3), this fan appears to be the very one she holds in her hand. The fan was a souvenir of Bath in England, perhaps presented to Deborah as a gift.

    Acc. Num: 1975.310.1

    adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,fan,1785-1795,1795-1815,used in America,
  • Spring Garter

    Spring Garter

    1790-1835; Probably France; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Silk, metal springs

    Garters using coiled metal springs encased in silk were invented in the 1780s. They were intended to replace earlier garters that consisted of ribbons or tapes tied tightly around the leg. Martin Van Butchell, a surgeon-dentist in England, applied for a patent for spring bands in 1783, followed closely the next year by another English inventor named Jean Philippe, who applied for a patent using tempered steel in his spring garters. By the 1840s, elastic was introduced, making spring garters obsolete.

    Acc. Num: 1985-263

  • Shift or Nightgown

    Shift or Nightgown

    1790-1800; New York, worn by Ann Van Rensselaer; Gift of Mrs. Cora Ginsburg; Linen

    Unlike knee-length shifts women wore beneath their gowns, this shortened style with front opening was used during the lying-in period following childbirth. The hip-length shifts would be easier than longer ones to keep stain-free during the mother's recuperation from childbirth. They were also more comfortable and convenient for sitting up in bed to receive company. Stitch marks indicate that the shift originally had a drawstring under the bust. This shift has a tradition of ownership by Ann Van Cortlandt Van Rensselaer of Albany, New York. Although Van Rensselaer did not have any living children, one can speculate that she had prepared a set of clothing in anticipation of childbirth after her 1787 marriage to Philip Van Rensselaer. Perhaps she became pregnant, but the child miscarried. That she never had the opportunity to use the clothes may account for their survival.

    Acc. Num: G1990-6

  • Banyan with Attached Waistcoat Fronts

    Banyan with Attached Waistcoat Fronts

    1790-1830; Europe; Block-printed cotton lined with linen

    This banyan has waistcoat fronts attached at the side seams, which eliminated the extra layers of the closely fitted waistcoat back. This arrangement made the banyan more comfortable without sacrificing appearance.

    Acc. Num: 1993-66

  • Stock Buckle

    Stock Buckle

    ca. 1790; Probably Virginia; Silver

    This buckle was worn at the back of the neck to fasten a man's stock. Knobs on the buckle slipped over buttonholes worked into the tab of the stock. See stock 1993-166.

    Acc. Num: 1978-88

  • Waistcoat


    ca. 1790; England or France; Gift of Mrs. Cora Ginsburg; Silk satin with silk and chenille needlework; vellum spangles; cotton-linen lining; linen interfacing

    This waistcoat was made by a professional embroiderer. The embroidered outlines for buttonholes appear on both the left and right fronts but are cut open only on the left side. This curious feature suggests that the panels were either sold as generic yardage intended for waistcoats or were originally designed for a double-breasted garment.

    Acc. Num: G1989-433

  • Breeches


    ca. 1790; Britain; Frame-knitted silk, waistband lined with cotton, fall lined with linen

    As men's breeches became tighter toward the end of the eighteenth century, stretchy fabrics such as knits gained popularity.

    Acc. Num: 1968-106

  • "Frying Sprats" (Satire of Queen Charlotte),

    "Frying Sprats" (Satire of Queen Charlotte),

    1791; London, England; Etched by James Gillray; published by Hannah Humphry

    The woman in the print, usually identified as Queen Charlotte, wears a patched pocket that is nevertheless stuffed with gold coins. The artist is satirizing her thrifty—even stingy—nature.

    Acc. Num: 1957-32

  • Mannequin


    1795-1815; Various objects, seen on the following pages; reproduction wig, headband, and stockings

    Gown styles changed dramatically at the end of the 18th century. Waistlines rose to just under the bust, textiles were soft and drapey, and skirts fell close to the body. Slim lines made it less practical to wear pockets under the skirts, spurring the fashion for handbags, also called reticules. Newly fashionable shawls added warmth to relatively thin garments.They also enhanced the elegant lines and classical appearance of clothing inspired in part by Greek and Roman art. Shoes with low or flat heels coordinated well with the new neoclassical styles.

    Acc. Num: n/a

  • Bound Almanac with Needle Case and Mirror: The Polite Repository, or Pocket Companion

    Bound Almanac with Needle Case and Mirror: The Polite Repository, or Pocket Companion

    1795; London, England; Leather, silver, paper, silk, wool

    Bound in one small volume is a calendar with pages for noting appointments, pages for cash accounts, and useful information for a well-born London woman, including lists of the members of Parliament, the baronets of England, princes of Europe, historical kings and queens of England, London bankers, school terms, and weights and measures. The owner of this almanac noted that she had two visitors on May 2 and 5 (Saturday and Tuesday) and attended parties on May 13 and 14 (Wednesday and Thursday) and the following week on May 18 and 19 (Monday and Tuesday). The book also includes slots for storing sewing and writing implements, wool leaves for holding needles and pins, and a mirror.

    Acc. Num: 1993-115

  • Oval Knee Buckles

    Oval Knee Buckles

    ca. 1795; England or America; Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Bond; Silver, steel; marked P•L in rectangle (maker unidentified)

    Acc. Num: 1976-79, 1-2

  • Stock


    1795-1811; England; Cotton, linen

    This stock is beautifully constructed from a lavish amount of material. Sixty-two inches of fine semi-sheer cotton are gathered into the three-inch wide linen tabs that fastened at the back of the neck. The stock has a history of being worn by John Knight (d. 1850) of Wolverley, England, at his wedding. It is not known whether it was worn at his first marriage to Helen Charlotte Hope in 1795 or his second to Jane Elizabeth Winn in 1811. Not unlike neckties, stocks were traditional in their styling and did not change significantly between those two dates.

    Acc. Num: 2008-114

  • "Compliance"


    1796; London, England; Hand-colored mezzotint engraving on paper; published by Haines and Son

    Acc. Num: 1971-3328

  • Formal or Court Suit

    Formal or Court Suit

    1800-1820; Spain; Silk velvet, silk woven with silver threads, and silk twill, all embroidered with silver gilt, sequins, and beads, lined with silk and cotton-linen, reproduction ruffles

    Combining brilliant color, elegant materials, and heavy metallic embroidery, this suit epitomizes the richness of men's European court wear in the early 19th century. The silhouette is attenuated, with slim skirts and a high collar that reaches almost to the ears. In contrast to earlier suits of the mid-18th century, shoulders are more square and broad. The shape of the coat, which curves away from the body, hints at the cutaway coat that becomes the standard for men's formal dress into the 21st century.

    Acc. Num: 1941-215, 1-3

  • Miniature Portrait in Pendant: "Woman, Possibly Mrs. James Gignilliat"

    Miniature Portrait in Pendant: "Woman, Possibly Mrs. James Gignilliat"

    ca. 1800; South Carolina or Georgia, America; Gift of John L. and William W. Gignilliat; Ivory, watercolor, gilded copper alloy frame, reproduction ribbon

    Acc. Num: 1991-1185,1

  • Shawl


    1800-1820; Kasmir, India; Woven cashmere goat wool

    Acc. Num: 2006-113

  • Stockings, Probably for a Man

    Stockings, Probably for a Man

    1800-1810; Paris, France; Knitted silk, silver gilt bouillon embroidery

    Stockings such as these were worn for extremely elaborate and formal occasions. Emperor Napoleon had a pair of stockings similar to these for his 1804 coronation. These stockings are marked in the knitting near the top hem, "Paris" and "Rue de la Paix," for the city and street.

    Acc. Num: 1991-513, 1-2

  • Pocketbook with Valentines

    Pocketbook with Valentines

    1800-1830; France; Anonymous gift; Silk, silk and metallic embroidery threads, silver lace, paper, parchment, paint

    This folding pocketbook is embroidered on the outside as well as on all six interior compartments with flowers and baskets in silk and metallic threads. Still inside the pocketbook are hand-painted and embroidered cards received or intended as Valentines. The sentiments, written in French, talk about honoring the recipients and sending greetings from the heart. One of the cards is stitched with silk through paper in a reversible embroidery technique; the front and back are equally finished. The greeting is addressed to the embroiderer's "Cher papa" (dear father) and sends her love.

    Acc. Num: 1971-1420

  • Mail or Post Bag

    Mail or Post Bag

    1800-1850; England; Leather, brass, iron

    This functional leather bag was used to carry mail for Clungunford House, the name engraved on the clasp. Located near Shrewsbury, Clungunford House (pronounced "Clungerford") was the seat of the Rocke family.

    Acc. Num: 1993-109

  • Bonnet or Hat

    Bonnet or Hat

    1800-1820; England or America, worn in Pennsylvania or Maryland by Wistar or Morris family member; Silk, sized cotton stiffening, wire

    Acc. Num: 1974-659

    clothing ,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,bonnet,hat,1795-1815,1815-1840,worn in America ,
  • Gloves


    ca. 1800; Barcelona, Spain; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Printed leather

    One of these gloves is stamped in ink on the interior "Felix Torruella Barcelona". Gowns with long sleeves came into fashion in the 1780s, and short gloves were more appropriate for the new style than elbow-length mitts or gloves.

    Acc. Num: 1991-494, 1-2

  • Cap


    ca. 1800; Connecticut; Gift of the Reverend Mrs. Mary Louise Howson; Cotton embroidered with cotton, cotton and linen lace

    Acc. Num: 1989-59

  • Neck Ruffle or Frill

    Neck Ruffle or Frill

    1800-1820; England or America; Cotton

    Acc. Num: 2010-105

  • Neck Ruffle or Frill marked Anne Peck No. 4

    Neck Ruffle or Frill marked Anne Peck No. 4

    1800-1820; England or America; Cotton

    Acc. Num: 2010-106

  • Short Gown

    Short Gown

    1800-1820; America; Roller-printed cotton lined with linen

    Even everyday clothing kept pace with some fashion changes. This short gown has the high waist of late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century styles. Located in the New York vicinity, the printed garment came with a handwritten tag that reads,"Aunt Logan'[s] Short Gown, given to Emily by Cousin Sarah M. Walker." Nothing more is known about Aunt Logan or her location.

    Acc. Num: 1996-95

    clothing,evrydy,adult,genderf,america,short gown,1795-1815,1815-1840,
  • Garter


    ca. 1800; France; Silk, silk chenille, wire

    Although stocking garters often consisted of woven ribbons that were tied tightly around the leg, later garters used metal springs, such as this, to give stretch. Rubber elastic was not yet available. The garter has the word "ami" embroidered in.

    Acc. Num: G1985-263

  • "Two Women" from Gallery of Fashion Magazine

    "Two Women" from Gallery of Fashion Magazine

    1801; London, England; Anonymous gift; Niklaus von Heideloff

    Acc. Num: 1971-3066

  • Waistcoat


    ca. 1801; Massachusetts; Gift of David S. and Clara J. Johnson; Silk lined with cotton, cotton back

    A paper tag accompanying the waistcoat stated that New Englander Peter Speer wore it as his wedding vest in 1801. The purple and black silk textile is woven with a design of bald eagles, the national emblem of the United States since 1782. The cotton lining retains the stamp of the Charlestown Bleachery, a textile finishing plant established in 1801 under its full name, Charlestown Bleachery and Dye Works. The plant was located in Somerville, then part of Charlestown, Massachusetts.

    Acc. Num: G1988-499

  • Woman's Hat

    Woman's Hat

    1806-1827; Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Felted fur lined and trimmed with silk, paper label; made by Philip Heitshu and Son

    Although the style of this hat looks eighteenth century, it was made in the nineteenth century. The label glued to the crown lining identifies the maker as Philip Heitshu, son of a German immigrant to Philadelphia. After a period of time spent in Loudoun County, Virginia, Heitshu moved to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1806 and opened a hat manufactory. He retired from the business in 1827. If a wearer is old-fashioned or thrifty, his or her clothes might date much later than stylistic features would suggest.

    Acc. Num: 1992-227

  • Purse, Sally Henry

    Purse, Sally Henry

    1809; Probably Maryland, Worcester County; Cotton embroidered with cotton, linen

    Acc. Num: 2002-62

  • Shoes


    ca. 1810; England; Silk, linen, leather

    Acc. Num: 1977-265, 1-2

  • Livery Coat and Waistcoat

    Livery Coat and Waistcoat

    1810-1850; Britain; Wool broadcloth trimmed with wool livery lace, lined with wool and linen

    Some suits of livery were highly elaborate in appearance, despite the relatively low status of the wearer. The suits were intended to proclaim the wealth of the employer, not the employee.

    Acc. Num: 1954-1030, 1-2

  • Trousers


    1810-1825; Possibly United States; Silk satin, waistband lined with cotton, cotton pockets

    Men's long trousers began to enter high fashion during the late eighteenth century. Prior to that time, only laborers, sailors, and young boys wore long pants. The conversion to the new mode was gradual. By 1830, however, most men had adopted long pants for daily wear. Only formal suits, such as those worn at court, continued to have knee-length breeches into the middle of the nineteenth century.

    Acc. Num: 1999-215

  • Mourning Brooch

    Mourning Brooch

    1811; Britain or America; Bequest of Miss Martha B. D. Spotswood; Gold, silver, enamel, glass, hair

    The rectangular brooch has woven hair beneath the glass and bears an inscription memorializing M. R. D., probably Mary Ruffin Gilliam Dunlop, in whose family it descended. Brooches such as this were sometimes worn centered on women's collars.

    Acc. Num: 1981-136

  • Mannequin


    1815-1840; Various objects, seen on the following pages; reproduction wig and 1900-1950 plume

    In the 1820s, neoclassical styles had moderated. Waistlines began to drop, sleeves widened, and skirts gradually became fuller, often embellished with trimming around the hem. Fine cashmere or wool shawls from India and Paisley, Scotland, were especially fashionable accessories. Some gowns had separate removable sleeve extensions to add variety to a gown with short sleeves.

    Acc. Num: n/a

  • Mannequin


    1815-1840; Various objects, seen on the following pages; reproduction wig, undergown, and gloves

    In the late 1820s and 1830s, sleeves became extremely wide. Loose cloaks with capes on the shoulders went over wide sleeves better than a fitted coat would have. Because hairstyles were puffed up in curls and topknots, women used bonnets with boning or reeds for shaping to avoid crushing the hair. Muffs continued to be used for warmth, but were also a fashionable accessory carried indoors.

    Acc. Num: n/a

  • Neck Ruffle or Frill

    Neck Ruffle or Frill

    1815-1835; England or America; Cotton, mother of pearl

    Acc. Num: 2010-104

  • Man's Pocketbook with Letters

    Man's Pocketbook with Letters

    ca. 1815, with contents from 1830-1856; Connecticut; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Crewel wool Irish stitch on linen canvas, cotton lining, paper

    According to the family history stitched to the inside of this folding pocketbook, a schoolgirl attending classes in Litchfield, Connecticut, made this pocketbook for her father, Asahel Bradley of Stockbridge, Massachusetts. The Litchfield Female Academy, founded in 1792, taught girls from around the country. The curriculum included needlework and watercolor painting, as well as academic subjects.

    Mr. Bradley must have cherished the pocketbook for many years. It is stuffed with letters, mementos, newspaper clippings, and poetry dating from 1830 to 1856. Several of the letters refer to the death of Bradley's two young grandsons in 1832.

    The pocketbook is embellished with hand-done wool needlework covering a linen canvas ground. Called in the period "Irish stitch," the needlework involved vertical stitches on the surface of the canvas, stepping over three or four squares of the canvas at a time, often in a zig-zag pattern. Today the work is sometimes called "Florentine, bargello, or flame stitch."

    Acc. Num: 1991-492

    container,adult,genderm,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1815-1840 ,american,
  • Neck Ruffle on Dickie

    Neck Ruffle on Dickie

    1815-1835; England or America; Cotton, mother of pearl

    Acc. Num: 2010-104

  • Barrister's Wig and Box

    Barrister's Wig and Box

    1817-1830; Ireland; Horsehair, silk, painted tin

    For symbolic reasons, British barristers continue to wear 18th-century style wigs hundreds of years after wigs have ceased to be worn as fashion. By the date of this wig, fashionable men were wearing their own hair, not wigs. W. H. Griffith, Esquire, whose name is painted on the wig's tin box, was Walter Hussey Griffith of Ireland. He was born in 1794 and became a barrister in 1817. He was still practicing in Dublin in 1850, when he appeared in the city directory with an office at 13 Clare Street. His son Walter Downes Griffith also became a barrister, as did his grandson, named Walter Hussey Griffith after his grandfather.

    Acc. Num: 2008-118, A-B

  • Bag with Music

    Bag with Music

    1820s; Paris, France; Leather, silver, paper

    This leather bag came with a French horn musical instrument made in Paris. The musical compositions are horn parts for orchestral music.

    Acc. Num: 2007-1, D and E

  • Cream Stocking Purse with Multicolor Embroidery

    Cream Stocking Purse with Multicolor Embroidery

    1820-1850; England or Europe; Anonymous gift; Netted silk embroidered with silk

    Acc. Num: 1971-1457

  • Cap


    1820-1835; New Hampshire; Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Charles D. Carey; Cotton

    According to family tradition, the cap was worn by one of two sisters, either Hepsibah Melendy or Sarah Melendy, of Amherst, New Hampshire. Mature women typically wore caps that covered more of their hair than those worn by younger women.

    Acc. Num: 1990-192

  • Muff


    1825-1835; Pennsylvania; Silk with silk and metallic embroidery, metal beads, and applied silk, wool, and cotton textiles

    Acc. Num: 1958-408

  • Case with Mirror, Miniature Writing, and Packaged Needles

    Case with Mirror, Miniature Writing, and Packaged Needles

    ca. 1825; America; Anonymous gift; Silk, paper, mirrored glass, metallic threads, steel

    This case is fitted with a mirror inside, not unlike a makeup mirror or compact of today. Inside the case is a package of three tiny needles wrapped in a paper folder; the needles were manufactured in Philadelphia. One of the early owners left examples of her miniature writing inside the case. The Lord's Prayer ("Our Father") is written on a piece of paper less than one inch square. A three-verse song entitled "The Wood Robin," written on paper 1 5/8 by 2 1/8 inches, was taken from a book published in Philadelphia by John Grigg. First published in 1826, his songbook entitled Southern and Western Songster was enlarged and republished in 1836. The text of the song reads as follows:

    The Wood Robin

    Stay sweet enchanter of the grove
    Leave not so soon thy native tree
    But warble still thou notes of love
    While my fond heart responds to thee
    [Indented] But warble still &c
    [singer was to repeat last two lines of song]

    Rest thy soft bosom on the Spray
    Till chilly Autumn frowns severe
    Then cheer me with thy parting Lay
    And I will answer with a tear
    [Indented] And I will answer &c

    But soon as Spring enrich'd with flowers
    Comes dancing oer the new-dress'd plain
    Return and cheer thy Natal bowers
    My Robin with those notes againv [Indented] Return and cheer thy natal

    Acc. Num: 1971-1468

  • Stenciled Apron

    Stenciled Apron

    1825-1840; America; Cotton, paint

    Decorative aprons were a popular accessory. Examples such as this were more for show than for function. Stenciling was done with dye or paint tamped through cut-out designs on a stencil. The technique was especially popular for bed covers and other household furnishings in the second quarter of the 19th century.

    Acc. Num: 1979.610.1

  • Nursing Dress

    Nursing Dress

    1825-1830; Britain or America; Gift of Tasha Tudor; Roller-printed and plain cottons, modern hooks and snaps

    By the 1820s, many daytime dresses had high necklines and back closures, which required modifications to their design for nursing. In this example, the bodice front was made with a loose panel that could be unfastened at the waist and raised for nursing.

    Acc. Num: G1998-231

  • Shoes


    late 1820s; Massachusetts, worn in Maine; Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Charles D. Carey; Silk satin, linen, leather, silk ribbon ties

    Acc. Num: 1990-189, 1-2

  • Flower Basket Purse

    Flower Basket Purse

    ca. 1830; Europe, probably France; Anonymous gift; Silk, silk and wire chenille

    Acc. Num: 1971-1418

  • Stocking


    ca. 1830; Worn in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Rumford; Knitted silk, marked ECM with silk

    Lacy pattern-knit stockings were especially fashionable in the 1820s and early 1830s. This stocking is marked ECM for Philadelphian Elizabeth Clifford Morris (1813-1892), who married Samuel Canby in 1832. The couple moved to Wilmington, Delaware after their marriage.

    Acc. Num: 1983-321, 1

    clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,underwear,stockings,1815-1840,worn in America ,
  • Collar or Pelerine

    Collar or Pelerine

    ca. 1830; America or Europe; Gift of Tasha Tudor; Cotton embroidered with cotton

    Acc. Num: 1998-229

  • Dress


    ca. 1835; Britain or United States; Gift of Tasha Tudor; Printed cotton trimmed with wool and cotton bobbin lace, fully lined with cotton

    During the 1830s, women's sleeves became enormous, only to deflate in the 1840s.

    Acc. Num: G1996-264

  • Green Stocking Purse

    Green Stocking Purse

    1840-1860; England; Anonymous gift; Crochet silk, metallic threads

    Acc. Num: 1971-1459

  • Handkerchief, "The Century of Invention Anno Domini 2000"

    Handkerchief, "The Century of Invention Anno Domini 2000"

    ca. 1841; England; Plate-printed cotton

    By the 1830s cartoonists were lampooning steam-powered vehicles and locomotives that had been invented in the early 1800s and were becoming increasingly popular. This printed design, adapted from the work of Charles Jameson Grant (British satirist, active 1829-1846), shows an artist's humorous view of what transportation would be like in the year 2000. Obviously, the artist had limited success in predicting the future.

    Acc. Num: 2010-31

  • Formal or Court Suit: Coat and Breeches

    Formal or Court Suit: Coat and Breeches

    ca. 1850; Britain; Wool broadcloth, cut-steel buttons, cotton lace ruffles, lined with silk and linen

    By the middle of the 19th century, men's court suits followed a formula: dark wool cloth trimmed with shiny buttons, like these cut-steel examples, and embroidered waistcoats. Styled like a fashionable suit of 80 years earlier, this coat has a center-back vent and pleats trimmed with buttons at the top and peeking out from inside the folds.

    Acc. Num: 1957-39, 1-2

    clothing,frml,genderm,adult,coat,breeches,1815-1840,post 1840,
  • "The Proposal"

    "The Proposal"

    1855; ____; From Peterson's Magazine, May, 1855

    By the 1850s, women's gowns had extremely full skirts that contrasted with narrow waists. Women stood with heads carried forward and rounded backs, rather than the straight posture of a century earlier. Men's fashionable daytime suits had lapelled coats and long trousers. This short jacket became the basic model for men's suit coats over the next 150 years.

    Acc. Num: n/a